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Recreational use of protected areas in Germany: Evaluating visitors' perception of crowding in Wadden Sea National Park


Grossmann, M.


Erholungsnutzung in Schutzgebieten in Deutschland: Erfassung der Crowding-Wahrnehmung im Nationalpark Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer.


Unspoiled natural environments are the backbone for various recreational activities. In recent years, visits to large scale protected areas continue to increase or at least be maintained at a high level. At the same time these areas provide important, sometimes competing landscape functions such as the protection of natural resources. Starting point of this work is that popular tourist sites in Germany such as the North Sea coast and the Alps attract numerous visitors annually and have to cope with a great demand for outdoor recreation activities. The high number of people visiting natural areas has generated a number of concerns about the ability of these areas to sustain appropriate levels of social impacts, especially in the summer season. Growing demand for access and participation in outdoor leisure activities can damage the ecological integrity of sensitive environments, and reduce the quality of visitor experiences at the same time. These social aspects are framed in terms of carrying capacity, which characterises the ability of a site or region to absorb recreational use without deterioration. Detailed knowledge of crowding issues in national parks in Europe and especially in Germany is rather limited. While the ecological impacts of tourism in protected areas in Germany are well documented, studies on social impacts in terms of social carrying capacity and how visitors perceive their recreation experience are rare.

Primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the interrelationships of visitor encounters and related perception of crowding and thus the identification of appropriate social indicators to measure recreation quality. A case study research design with several methodological approaches is applied in a comparative manner to assess the social carrying capacity of recreation use in a popular German coastal recreation area. The empirical data has been collected in an on-site survey on the Hamburger Hallig located in the Wadden Sea National Park to identify various determinants of visitor’s crowding perception. A combination of visitor survey and direct observation data is applied to simulate the visitor use patterns and respondents’ reported encounter associated with areas’ actual density. This approach was used to analyse the perception of contacts with others (reported encounters), congestion (perceived crowding) and preferences for certain visitor numbers within the study area. More...



Economic Valuation of Wetland Ecosystem Services. Case studies from the Elbe River Basin - Ökonomische Bewertung von Ökosystemdienstleistung von Feuchtgebieten


Grossmann, M.


Accounting for wetland ecosystem service benefits in cost benefit analysis of river basin management options with case studies from the Elbe River Basin.


Wetlands provide a multitude of ecosystem services such as livestock fodder production, recreational opportunities, habitat and biodiversity conservation or regulation of nutrient and greenhouse gas fluxes. Wetland management inevitably involves trade-offs regarding the management and allocation of the two key resources, land and water, that taken together determine the status of wetland ecosystems and the potential flow of benefits to human wellbeing. The case studies presented in this thesis addresses two types of typical central European wetlands: river floodplains and lowland peat wetlands. Floodplain wetland management requires trade-offs between the benefits of conducting activities on the floodplain against the risk and adverse consequences to these activities caused by flooding and trade-offs between the benefits and costs of reducing this flood risk, for example through the conversion of active floodplains to protected floodplains by construction of dikes. The management of lowland peat wetlands, on the other hand, requires trade offs between the benefits of drainage and conversion of wetland land for increased agricultural production and the loss of benefits from other ecosystem services. Wetland land uses are interdependent with water regulation and all wetlands require sufficient water at the appropriate time to maintain their wetland status. Particularly lowland peat wetlands are dependent on the inflow of river water and constitute important water users within river basin that compete with other water uses. Trade offs are therefore also required regarding the allocation of scarce water resources both within the basin and within wetlands.

From an economic perspective, the key difficulty in determining whether restoration of wetlands or water allocation to wetlands are an appropriate policy or management goal lies in the difficulty of determining the value of the public benefits provided by wetlands. There is a gap between the market valuation and the economic value of many ecosystem services. The challenge of valuation of ecosystem services that have a public goods character and the integration of wetland ecosystem service benefits into the economic appraisal of river basin management options in a cost - benefit analytical framework are the two central issues of this thesis. More...


Umsetzung der nationalen Strategie zum Integrierten Küstenzonenmanagement


Janssen, G.; Stratmann, L.; Meinel, G.; Hecht, R.; Herold, H.; Meyer, M.; Jahn, C.; Janßen, H.; Hivert, C.; Köhn, J.; Kannen, A.; Runge, K.; Kolb, D.; Meister, P.; Steingrube, W.; Scheibe, R.; Hartje, V.

Umweltforschungsplan des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (2012)

Strategien, Instrumente und Maßnahmen eines sparsamen, umweltschonenden und effizienten Umgangs mit der Ressource "Fläche" im Küstenraum. 


The objective of the project was to explore the capabilities of ICZM for the sparing and environmentally friendly use of land as a resource, based on the evaluation and validation of land use, settlement development, environmental conditions, demographic change and coastal dynamics in the German coastal region. Case scenarios trace possible development paths up to 2030. In conclusion, recommendations for the adoption and further development of legal, economic and planning tools, as well as the ICZM management system are formulated. Four case studies exemplify the influence of ICZM on land use with a practical orientation in different German coastal states. The extraction of clay soil to raise dykes in Wangerland, repowering non-privileged existing wind turbines in Dithmarschen, port development and management of the port area in Hamburg, as well as different projects in tourism on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom are discussed. It is demonstrated that legal and planning tools can be successfully applied in the framework of local and regional ICZM processes to manage regionally and locally significant developments involving extensive configurations of actors/ stakeholders and particular challenges in the sparing, efficient and environmentally friendly use of land. In some cases, however, the tools mentioned have proved unsuccessful and inappropriate. Drawing on scientific expertise and the experience gathered in the case studies, recommendations are made for the flanking application of eco- nomic tools. More...


Wastewater reuse and management in the Middle East and North Africa Region. A case study of Jordan


Ghneim, Azmi

(2010) - XIV, 159 S., A 5, brosch.

ISBN (online): 978-3-7983-2267-7

ISBN (print): 978-3-7983-2268-4


The MENA region is the driest in the world. Water resources are deteriorating while demand for water is increasing due to the rapid population growth. Irrigated agriculture consumes the largest volume of water resources as a result of continuous demand for food production. A huge potential for satisfying this increasing demand exists in the reuse of municipal wastewater in agriculture. The reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture will provide supplement water quantities for irrigation and will free amounts of freshwater to be reallocated within the municipal water sector, where higher water quality is required. Currently, some wastewater quantities in the MENA countries are already reused. However, the amounts of wastewater reused in comparison to collected and treated wastewater are still low. The main assumptions of this dissertation are that the extent of conflict over freshwater resources between the different water sectors can foster wastewater reuse in agriculture. In addition, the insufficiency associated with wastewater reuse has less to do with the expensive treatment processes rather than with the lack of appropriate water policies and the enabling institutional setting. The dissertation's main objective is the analysis of policies, legal and institutional settings and the components of wastewater reuse in agriculture. A systematic approach was used to identify existing organizational structures; roles and responsibilities of different actors involved in wastewater reuse. The in-depth-analysis is presented through the case study of Jordan. For evidence, the dissertation focuses on an extensive review of the literature available and policy documents and laws on wastewater reuse in Jordan.


Modelling future residential development. A scenario analysis for the Elbe River Basin


Hoymann, Jana

Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin (2010) 

XXII, 174 S., A 5, brosch., Preis: EUR 10,90

ISBN (print): 978-3-7983-2276-9


Ökonomische Bewertung naturverträglicher Hochwasservorsorge an der Elbe


Grossmann, M.; Hartje, V.; Meyerhoff, J.

Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt 89, Bundesamt für Naturschutz: Bonn (2010)

130 S., Preis: EUR 14,00 

ISSN: 978-3-7843-3989-4

Überschwemmungen wie die Elbeflut im August 2002 führen uns immer wieder auf dramatische Weise die Notwendigkeit der Hochwasservorsorge vor Augen. Klimawandel und die Ausweitung der Siedlungs- und Verkehrsflächen verschärfen dabei das Risiko von Schäden auch durch kleinere und lokale Ereignisse. Die Bundesregierung fordert, zur Vorsorge gegen Hochwasserschäden auch naturverträgliche Maßnahmen durchzuführen wie Deichrückverlegungen, die Wiedergewinnung natürlicher Überschwemmungsflächen und eine Revitalisierung von Auen. Solche Maßnahmen schneiden jedoch bei traditionellen Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen, die nur die Hochwasser senkende Wirkung berücksichtigen, tendenziell schlecht ab – verglichen mit technischem Hochwasserschutz (Deichbau und -sanierung). Die vorliegende Studie erarbeitet eine Methodik, die zusätzlich die Wirkung der Auen auf die Lebensraum-, Schadstoffabbau- und Erholungsraum-funktion monetär erfasst. Mit dieser erweiterten Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse werden unterschiedliche Hochwasserschutzvarianten an der Elbe analysiert. Das Ergebnis: Naturverträgliche Hochwasserschutzmaßnahmen weisen aufgrund ihrer vielfältigen gesellschaftlichen Funktionen ein positives Kosten-Nutzen-Verhältnis auf. Eine Kombination aus technischen und naturverträglichen Maßnahmen an ausgewählten Stellen ist aus ökologischer und ökonomischer Sicht am sinnvollsten.


Assessing the Economics of Natural Resource in a Changing Environment The Case of Industrial Water Demand in the Elbe River Basin


Konar Mutafoğlu

Berliner Beiträge zur Ökologie, Bd. 5, Weißensee Verlag (2010)

352 S., Preis: EUR 32,00

ISBN: 978-3-89998-179-7

ISSN 1610-6326

Industrial firms, water suppliers and regulators in Germany face the challenges of climate change and its impacts on the availability and quality of water supplies. In an environment with potentially declining water supply reliability, information on industrial water demand patterns becomes more relevant. 
This work departs from an economic approach by inter-preting the demand for water as a derived demand within the overall use of inputs for industrial production. The analysis primarily uses firm-level data obtained through a survey in the German part of the Elbe River Basin. For the first time, own- and cross-price elasticities of industrial water demand as well as elasticities of substitution are derived for Germany in a microeconometric cost function framework.

Bestellung beim Weißensee-Verlag


Water Politics and Development Cooperation. Local Power Plays and Global Governance.


Scheumann, Waltina; Neubert, Susanne; Kipping, Martin (Eds.)

Springer Verlag (2008)

416 S., 16 Illustr., Hardcover

ISBN: 978-3-540-76706-0

Whether people have access to drinking water, irrigation water and sanitation or not, whether water resources are used sustainably or overexploited, and whether emerging challenges for the water sector - such as adaptation to climate change – are tackled or not, in the end relies on politics. The importance of the political sphere for understanding and solving water sector problems is the basic rationale of this book, which is the outcome of the Fifth Dialogues on Water, organised at the German Development Institute, Bonn. It is not the first time that the Dialogues on Water have touched upon water politics. But these Dialogues, unlike earlier ones, focused on the political processes of policy formulation and the strategic behaviour of the actors involved. The papers assembled in this book analyze debates and investigate water politics at the international, national and local level. They examine policies as results from power plays of state and non-state actors alike over water resources and modalities of water service delivery and as a function of their respective means of influence. In line with the general focus of the Dialogues on Water, specific attention is devoted to implications for development cooperation.


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